TC304 Risk

Engineering Practice of Risk Assessment and Management

1. Conferences & workshops:

  • 2nd International Workshop on Resilience of Urban Tunnel and Pipeline, July 15 2017, and 2nd International Workshop on Monitoring and Inspection on Metro Tunnel, July 16 2017 (Hongwei), co-organized by TC304
    • 180 attendees
    • 7 keynotes and 2 invited lectures on July 15, including Hsein Juang and KK Phoon
    • 7 keynotes on July 16, including HW Huang
  • TC304/TC205/GI-RAM/GEOSNet mini-symposium “Reliability of geotechnical structures” in 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR2017), 6-10 August 2017, Vienna, Austria (KK, Jianye, Gordon) – (12 abstracts accepted)
    • Jianye Ching - A weakest-link model for the mobilized shear strength of a spatially variable soil mass
    • Wenping Gong, C. Hsein Juang, and James R. Martin, II - A Modified Importance Sampling Method for Estimating Failure Probability
    • Yoshida Ikumasa  - Iterative Particle Filter for Bayesian Update of Model Parameters
    • Rafael Jimenez - Tunnel convergences: Calibration with Bayesian methods and prediction of failure-times
    • Andy Leung - Effects of superstructure stiffness on the reliability of piled foundations on spatially variable soils
    • Dianqing Li - Characterization of statistical uncertainty in probabilistic model using bootstrap method for slope reliability analysis
    • Sónia Marques - Discussion on Imprecise Interval Approaches Applied to the Eurocode 7 Partial Factor Design
    • He-Qing Mu, Ka-Veng Yuen, Iok-Tong Ng - Prediction on Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Rock: Bayesian Inference and Outlier Analysis
    • Shin-ichi Nishimura - Risk Evaluation of Earth Dam Breaches due to Heavy Rains with Use of Response Surface Method
    • Chong Tang & KK Phoon - Model Uncertainty in Axial Helical Pile Capacity Calculations using Installation Torque
    • Giovanna Vessia - Random field theory applied to the prediction of the pile bearing capacity measured at Araquari site (Brazil)
    • Yu Wang - Quantification of Prior Information in Geotechnical Site Characterization Using Excel Add-in: Bayesian Equivalent Sample Toolkit (BEST)
    • Jaehyun Park, Resistance factor updating and preliminary design case study of large diameter bored piles
    • Zhongqiang Liu, Bjørn Kalsnes, Farrokh Nadim, Sara Bazin, Suzanne Lacasse, Bayesian kriging for the mapping of sensitive clay
    • Panagiotis Spyridis - Reliability based trigger-level concept for in-tunnel monitoring of SCL tunnels
    • Ivan Depina - Application of conditional random fields for the reliability assessment of slope stability
    • Zhongqiang Liu - Bayesian kriging for the mapping of sensitive clay
    • Jinhui Li - Characterizing the variability of soil using conditioned 3D random field
    • Limin Zhang - Empirical formulas for estimating casualties in large earthquakes
  • 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (19th ICSMGE), Sep 17-22 2017,Seoul, Republic of Korea
    • Suzanne Lacasse Lecture, 19 Sep 2017 - Farrokh Nadim delivered an excellent lecture on “Reliability-Based Approach for Robust Geotechnical Design”
    • Joint TC205/304 Workshop, Sep 20 2017 (Chairs: Brian & KK)
    • TC304 discussion session, Sep 20 2017 (Chairs: KK & Jaehyun)
      • Hyunki delivered an overview of “Engineering practice of risk assessment and management (TC 304)” as General Reporter.
      • There are 11 papers, but only 9 papers were presented.
      • KK thanked Hyunki, Jaehyun, Gil-Lim, Dongwook, Chanyoung and Hansaem for organizing the joint workshop and the TC304 discussion session.
  • 15th International Conference of the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (15 IACMAG), Oct 19-23 2017, Wuhan, China
    • TC304 Special session “Computational probabilistic geomechanics” in 15IACMAG, Oct 19-23 2017, Wuhan, China (KK, Dianqing, Michael Beer)
    • Invited lecture “Homogenization of Shear Strength and Modulus in Spatially Variable Soils” (KK & Jianye)
  • International Symposium on Life-cycle Engineering and Sustainability of Infrastructure (ISLESI 2017), Nov 8-11 2017, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Keynote “Effect of strain softening on mobilized strength of spatially variable soil” (KK Phoon)
    • Keynote “Construction of site-specific probabilistic transformation model for geotechnical design” (J Ching)
  • Major event in 2018: 6th International Symposium on Reliability Engineering and Risk Management (6ISRERM), May 31-June 1 2018, Singapore (chaired by KK)
    • KK shared that the theme of this conference is resilience engineering. One objective is to discuss the role of reliability in robustness and resilience.
    • The following special sessions are being organized by TC304:
      • Yu Wang and Jianye Ching “Geotechnical risk and reliability”
      • Dianqing Li and Dagang Lv “Meta-model based uncertainty quantification and reliability analysis”
      • Hongwei Huang & Bilal Ayyub “Resilience of geostructural system and infrastructure”
      • Zijun Cao and He-Qing Mu “Geotechnical databases and data analysis” – Zijun shared that the purpose of this session is to promote more research on machine learning. As a post-meeting note, President Charles Ng raised an interesting suggestion to start a new TC on machine learning during the closing ceremony.
      • LM Zhang “Landslide risk assessment and management”
    • TC304 Forum on "Constructing open-to-public geotechnical databases - possible obstacles and solutions" (Armin & Jianye)
      • Several members of TC304 have agreed to serve as panel members for this forum, which will tackle the opportunities and limitations of pursuing an open-source database
      • Armin pointed out that the US National Science Foundation has funded a new center as part of the NHERI Program called “DesignSafe-CI” (see that has, among other features, the capability to preserve large datasets as part of its mandate. Armin will learn more about this option and present this as an idea at ISRERM.
  • 5th China National symposium on Engineering Risk and Insurance, Aug  2018, Harbin Institute of Technology  Harbin, China (Dagang LV & HW Huang)
    • The first announcement: October, 2017
    • Call for paper: November 1, 2017
    • Paper due: February 1, 2018
  • International Symposium for Geotechnical Safety & Risk (ISGSR 2019), Dec 11-13, 2019, Taipei, Taiwan (Chair: Jianye Ching)
    • Call for abstract: June 1, 2018
    • Abstract due: Aug 31, 2018
    • Wilson Tang & Suzanne Lacasse Lectures
    • Special session honoring Prof. Yusuke Honjo (Guest editors: Makoto Suzuki and Masahiro Shirato)
      • KK shared that the purpose of this session is to present papers appearing in a Special Issue in Georisk on “Recent Developments of Performance-based Design Codes and Practice” honoring Prof Yusuke Honjo. This special issue is being organized. Members who are interested to contribute papers can email KK or Makoto directly (
      • 20+ sessions (15+ organized sessions)
  • ICASP13, Seoul, Korea, 2019 (Chair: Junho Song)
    • Website not yet available, to be updated in future
    • TC304 may consider to organize session/mini-symposium
  • APSSRA, Tokyo, 2020 (Shin-ichi) – organization in progress

2. Short courses:

  • Short course (2-days) on “Reliability and risk in geotechnical engineering practice”. Deltares Academy, Oct 23-24 2017, Delft, Netherlands (T. Schweckendiek & W. Kanning).
  • Short course on “Understanding geotechnical reliability-based design and its complementary role to partial factors design approach”, Geo-Risk 2017 conference, 4 June 2017, Denver, Colorado, USA (BK Low & KK Phoon).
  • Short course "Statistics and Probabilistic Methods in Geotechnical Engineering– the Fundamentals" at Recent Trends in Geotechnical Engineering and Education, Workshop No. 3, Sep 15-16 2016, Brisbane, Australia (D.V. Griffiths)


3. Keynote lectures:

  • KK Phoon & J Ching, “Mobilized shear strength in spatially variable soils”, International Symposium on Sustainability and Resiliency of Infrastructure (ISSRI 2016), Nov 9-12 2016, Taipei, Taiwan
  • Gregory Baecher, 2nd Suzanne Lacasse Lecture "Bayesian thinking for geotechnical engineers", Georisk 2017/ISGSR 2017, June 4-6 2017, Denver, Colorado
  • Gordon Fenton, 5th Wilson Tang Lecture "Future directions in reliability-based geotechnical design", Georisk 2017/ISGSR 2017, June 4-6 2017, Denver, Colorado
  • Brian Simpson, “Eurocode 7 and Robustness”, Georisk 2017/ISGSR 2017, June 4-6 2017, Denver, Colorado.
  • Armin Stuedlein, “Effect of Spatial Variability on Static and Liquefaction-induced Differential Settlements”, Georisk 2017/ISGSR 2017, June 4-6 2017, Denver, Colorado
  • C Hsein Juang, “Assessing soil liquefaction and effect using probabilistic methods”, Georisk 2017/ISGSR 2017, June 4-6 2017, Denver, Colorado
  • Farrokh Nadim, 3rd Suzanne Lacasse Lecture, 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ICSMGE 2017), Sep 17-22 2017, Seoul, Korea
  • K Phoon & J Ching, “Homogenization of Shear Strength and Modulus in Spatially Variable Soils”, 15 IACMAG, Oct 19-23 2017, Wuhan, China

  • Phoon, KK & Retief, JV (2016). “Reliability of Geotechnical Structures in ISO2394”, CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands – published
  • Georisk Special Issue on “Distinctive and Critical Elements in Geotechnical Risk and Reliability” (Yu Wang) – (Georisk Volume 10, Issue 4, Dec 2016)
    • John T. Christian and Gregory B. Baecher, Sources of uncertainty in liquefaction triggering procedures
    • Yu Wang, Oluwatosin Victor Akeju and Zijun Cao, Bayesian Equivalent Sample Toolkit (BEST): an Excel VBA program for probabilistic characterisation of geotechnical properties from limited observation data
    • Wen-Chao Huang and Hong-Wen Yu, Variability of levee failure mechanisms subject to heavy rainfalls, case studies in Taiwan
    • Jonathan C. Huffman, John P. Martin and Armin W. Stuedlein, Calibration and assessment of reliability-based serviceability limit state procedures for foundation engineering
    • Jianye Ching, Kok-Kwang Phoon and Tsai-Jung Wu, Spatial correlation for transformation uncertainty and its applications
    • Shin-ichi Nishimura, Toshifumi Shibata and Takayuki Shuku, Diagnosis of earth-fill dams by synthesised approach of sounding and surface wave method
  • 10th Anniversary Issue for Georisk (Georisk Volume 11, Issue 1, 2017 (open access)
    • Phoon K. K., Role of reliability calculations in geotechnical design
    • Adeyemi Emman Aladejare & Yu Wang, Evaluation of rock property variability
    • Richard J. Bathurst & Sina Javankhoshdel, Influence of model type, bias and input parameter variability on reliability analysis for simple limit states in soil-structure interaction problems
    • Jinbo Chen & Robert B. Gilbert, Offshore Pile System Model Biases and Reliability
    • J. Michael Duncan & Matthew D. Sleep, The Need for Judgement in Geotechnical Reliability Studies
    • Ahmad Kahiel, Shadi Najjar, & Salah Sadek, Reliability-Based Design of Spread Footings on Clays Reinforced with Aggregate Piers
    • Sara Khoshnevisan, Lei Wang & C. Hsein Juang, Response Surface-Based Robust Geotechnical Design of Supported Excavation - Spreadsheet-Based Solution
    • Trevor Orr, Defining and selecting characteristic values of geotechnical parameters for designs to Eurocode 7
    • Iason Papaioannou & Daniel Straub, Learning Soil Parameters and Updating Geotechnical Reliability Estimates under Spatial Variability – Theory and Application to Shallow Foundations 
    • Rita Sousa, Karim S. Karam, Ana Laura Costa & Herbert H. Einstein, Exploration and Decision Making in Geotechnical Engineering - A Case Study
    • Te Xiao, Dian-Qing Li, Zi-Jun Cao, Xiao-Song Tang, Full Probabilistic Design of Slopes in Spatially Variable Soils Using Simplified Reliability Analysis Method
  • Geotechnical Safety and Reliability: Honoring Wilson H. Tang (GSP 286) (ASCE GI-RAM; Eds.: Hsein Juang, Bob Gilbert, Limin Zhang, Jie Zhang, and Lulu Zhang)
  • Special Collection on “Probabilistic site characterization” in ASME-ASCE Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems (KK) – (11 abstracts accepted)

  • (ISSMGE conferences) 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ICSMGE 2017), Sep 17-22 2017, Seoul, Korea (
    • Suzanne Lacasse Lecture by Farrokh Nadim on "Reliability-Based Approach for Robust Geotechnical Design" (19 Sep 2017)
    • Joint TC205/TC304 Workshop , Sep 20 2017 (Chairs: Brian & KK)
      • Nine presentations were delivered by the discussion leaders culminating in an interesting discussion on future directions and challenges. 
      • 150 hard copies were printed for distribution during the workshop.
      • The final report is also distributed through the conference USB and TC304 website:
    • TC304 discussion session, Sep 20 2017 (Chairs: KK & Jaehyun)
      • Hyunki delivered an overview of “Engineering practice of risk assessment and management (TC 304)” as General Reporter.
      • There are 11 papers, but only 9 papers were presented.
    • TC205 held a board/technical meeting in ICSMGE 2017. The meeting will be partly administrative but mainly an opportunity for discussion about limit state design, partial factor design and performance based design (Brian)

  • Joint TC205/TC304 Working Group on “Discussion of statistical/reliability methods for Eurocodes” (Brian, KK)
    • The “Joint TC205/TC304 Working Group on ‘Discussion of statistical/reliability methods for Eurocodes’ – Final Report” was compiled for presentation in 19ICSMGE
    • The final report is also distributed through the 19ICSMGE conference USB, which can also be downloaded here


Lead discusser


Interim report


 Malcolm Bolton


Limitations of reliability analysis

Download powerpoint

Chap 9

 Jianye Ching


Transformation uncertainties & multivariate soil data

Download report

Chap 1

 Peter Day


Practical geotechnical design using reliability based design methods

Download report

Chap 3

 Kerstin Lesny


Evaluation and consideration of model uncertainties in reliability based design

Download report

Chap 2

 Dianqing Li


Incorporating spatial variability into geotechnical reliability based design

Download report

Chap 7

 BK Low


EXCEL-based direct reliability analysis and its potential role to complement Eurocodes

Download report

Chap 4

 Sónia H. Marques


Imprecise probabilistic and interval approaches applied to partial factor design

Download report

Chap 8

 Brian Simpson



Download report

Chap 10

 Yu Wang


Selection of characteristic values for rock and soil properties using Bayesian statistics and prior knowledge

Download report

Chap 5

 Jie Zhang


Bayesian method: a natural tool for processing geotechnical information

Download report

Chap 6



  • Directory of national reliability-based design (RBD) groups


To strengthen and coordinate activities between TC304 and national groups, particularly those engaging in developing reliability-based design codes, we propose to maintain a directory at our TC304 website as a start.  We welcome participation from anyone who are interested in RBD codes for geotechnical engineering – formal membership in national code committees is not necessary. 


The sample entries would be posted in our TC304 website.  Do submit other national entries to Jianye.






Code committee(s)


Gordon Fenton

Dalhousie University

Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

Dennis Becker

Golder Associates


Dave Dundas




Richard Bathurst

Royal Military College of Canada


The Netherlands

Schweckendiek, Timo

Deltares / Delft university of Technology

Eurocode 7 (WG1/TG1),
ENW (Dutch Expertise Network for Flood Protection),
WBI2017 (Flood Defences)

Kanning, Wim

Deltares / Delft university of Technology

WBI2017 (Flood Defences)

Teixeira, Ana


WBI2017 (Flood Defences)

Van der Krogt, Mark


WBI2017 (Flood Defences)

Calle, Ed


ENW (Dutch Expertise Network for Flood Protection)

Hicks, Michael

Delft University of Technology


Vardon, Phil

Delft University of Technology


Jommi, Cristina

Delft University of Technology / Deltares

Eurocode 7 (WG3/TG4)

Gavin, Ken

Delft University of Technology / Deltares


Van der Meer, Martin


ENW (Dutch Expertise Network for Flood Protection)

Rijneveld, Ben



Jongejan, Ruben

Jongejan RMC

ENW (Dutch Expertise Network for Flood Protection)

Bisschop, Cor



Cools, Paul

Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment


Van Hemert, Henk

Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

ENW (Dutch Expertise Network for Flood Protection)

De Visser, Marieke

Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment


Koopmans, Rimmer



Wolters, Herm Jan

IV Infra


Lengkeek, Arny

Witteveen & Bos


Everts, Bert



Viehofer, Thomas

Royal Haskoning DHV


Tsimopoulou, Vana

Van Oord


Vastenburg, Erik

HHNK (water board)


Effing, Bas

Rivierenland (water board)


South Korea

Park, Jae Hyun

Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology

Committee Highway & cable stayed bridge design codes & Secretary_KGS Limit state design discussion group

Kwak, Kiseok

Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology

Committee_Highway bridge design code & Chair, KGS Limit state design discussion group

Chung, Choong Ki

Seoul National University

Committee_Highway bridge design code

Lim, Jong Seok

Mokpo National University

Kim, Byung Il

Myong Ji University

Cho, Sung Min

Korea Expressway Coorperation

Jung, Sang Seom

Yonsei University

Committee_Cable stayed bridge code

Chung, Moonkyung

Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology

Yoon, Gil Lim

Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology

Committee_Harbor and port design code

Jung, Gyung Ja

Korea Expressway Coorperation


Kim, Dongwook

Incheon National University


Kim, Hyun Ki

Kookmin University


Huh, Jungwon

Chonnam National University







Huang, Hongwei

Tongji University

China National Code for risk management of underground works in urban rail transit

Li, Jie

Tongji University


Jin, Weiliang

Zhejiang University


Gong, Jinxing

Dalian University of Technology


Li, Jingpei

Tongji University


Zhang, Jie

Tongji University


Li, Dianqing

Wuhan University


Zhang, Lulu

Shanghai Jiaotong University


Jin, Xinyang

China construction science research institute


Zhao, Jida

China construction science research institute

Unified standard for reliability design of building structures

Lv, Dagang

Harbin institute of technology

Unified standard for reliability design of building structures

Zhang, Yuling

China academy of railway science


Cao, Zijiun

Wuhan University



Sónia H. Marques

Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP)


Celeste Jorge

National Laboratory for Civil Engineering


# Type Full Name Country
1 Chair Jianye Ching Chinese Taipei
2 Vice Chair Armin Stuedlein United States
3 Secretary Jie Zhang China
4 Nominated by TC Chair Yu Wang Hong Kong
5 Nominated by TC Chair Yanguo Zhou China
6 Nominated by TC Chair Giovanna Vessia Italy
7 Nominated by TC Chair Zijun Cao China
8 Nominated Member Timo Schweckendiek Netherlands
9 Corresponding Member Chan-Young Yune South Korea
10 Nominated Member Gil Lim Yoon South Korea
11 Corresponding Member Robert Berkelaar Netherlands
12 Nominated Member Hyun-Ki Kim South Korea
13 Corresponding Member Jin Man Kim South Korea
14 Nominated Member Giovanni Vannucchi Italy
15 Corresponding Member Marco Redaelli United Kingdom
16 Nominated Member Malcolm Eddleston United Kingdom
17 Nominated Member Nick Sartain United Kingdom
18 Nominated Member Egla Luca Albania
19 Nominated Member Dasaka S. Murthy India
20 Nominated Member Ioannis Zevgolis Greece
21 Nominated Member Pavlos Tyrologou Greece
22 Corresponding Member Martin van Staveren Netherlands
23 Nominated Member Jinsong Huang Australia
24 Nominated Member Michele Calvello Italy
25 Corresponding Member Anders Prästings Sweden
26 Corresponding Member Andy Leung Hong Kong
27 Corresponding Member Jianfeng Xue Australia
28 Nominated Member Leena Korkiala-Tanttu Finland
29 Corresponding Member Jae Hyun Park South Korea
30 Nominated Member Hendra Jitno Indonesia
31 Corresponding Member He-Qing Mu China
32 Corresponding Member Qing LÜ China
33 Corresponding Member Jason Le Masurier United Kingdom
34 Corresponding Member Sónia Hortência Portugal
35 Nominated Member António Topa Gomes Portugal
36 Nominated Member Zhongqiang Liu Norway
37 Corresponding Member Johan Spross Sweden
38 Nominated Member Baris Trak Turkey
39 Nominated Member Zeynep Aslay Turkey
40 Nominated Member Arjan Grashuis Netherlands
41 Corresponding Member Axel Moellmann Germany
42 Nominated Member Patrick Arnold Germany
43 Nominated Member Vaughan Griffiths United States
44 Nominated Member Adrian Rodriguez-Marek United States
45 Corresponding Member Lance Roberts United States
46 Nominated Member Charng Juang United States
47 Corresponding Member Kevin Foye United States
48 Corresponding Member Zijun Cao China
49 Corresponding Member Jinhui Li China
50 Corresponding Member Lulu Zhang China
51 Nominated Member Shadi Najjar Lebanon
52 Nominated Member Shinichi Nishimura Japan
53 Nominated Member Makoto Suzuki Japan
54 Nominated Member Dianqing Li China
55 Nominated Member H.W. Sun Hong Kong
56 Nominated Member Limin Zhang Hong Kong
57 Nominated Member Jacques ROBERT France
58 Nominated Member Mark Jaksa Australia
59 Nominated Member Patrick Ganne Belgium
60 Nominated Member Ali Noorzad Iran
61 Nominated Member Anne BERGERE France
62 Nominated Member Lars Olsson Sweden
63 Corresponding Member Ikumasa Yoshida Japan
64 Nominated Member M.L. KHOLMYANSKY Russia
65 Nominated Member Farrokh Nadim Norway
66 Nominated Member Rafael Jiménez Spain
67 Corresponding Member Celeste Jorge Portugal
68 Nominated Member Laura Caldeira Portugal
69 Nominated Member Bak Kong Low Singapore
70 Corresponding Member Yu Wang Hong Kong
71 Nominated Member Hongwei Huang China

TC304 lauches the TC304 databases (304dB) Efforts

One of the key findings of the 2017 ISSMGE 2017 SOA/SOP Survey is that publically-available databases that include information available for benchmarking studies of inherent spatial variability, soil and rock properties, and risk databases be available to the profession. Thu

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Joint TC205/TC304 discussion group reports/chapters (free download)

The final report can be downloaded from TC304 website:

  • Joint TC205/TC304 discussion group workshop
    • The workshop was successfully conducted on 20 Sep 2017, Hall E5, between 9

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TC304 survey questions to support project on “Creation and distribution of a global survey on the state of the art versus state of practice"

International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE)

Global survey on the state of the art versus state of practice in the varied fields of geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering


TC304 - Engineering Practice of Risk Assessment and

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Host Member Society: Singapore

Short name: Risk (TC304)


GeoWorld Group: Engineering Practice of Risk Assessment and Management (TC304)


TC304 Guidelines, Information, and Technical Resources (ver 9)

If you wish to add references to the list. Send the formatted references to Gordon Fenton at or Vaughan Griffiths at


TC304 Glossary in different languages

Chinese, Spanish, German, French, Persian, Japanese, and Korean

English to East Asian languages

English to European languages

  Contributors (names in alphabetic order):

  Traditional Chinese: J Ching & CH Juang

  Simplified Chinese: HW Huang, DQ Li, Y Wang, J Zhang, & LM Zhang

  Spanish: R Jimenez, Z Medina‐Cetina, & CR Rodríguez

  German: D Straub (with Christian Birkhahn)

  French: A-H Soubra

  Persian: Ali Noorzad

  Japanese: Shin-ichi Nishimura & Makoto Suzuki

  Korean: Hyun-Ki Kim

Contact Technical Committee : Engineering Practice of Risk Assessment and Management